Modernization


T-55AGM

 (version of modernization of T-54, T-55, T-59 and T62 main battle tanks)

T55 AGM

The T-55AGM tank is a version of modernization of T-54, T-55, T-59 and T-62 tanks.

In order to enhance all its main combat, technical and operational characteristics, it is fitted with the following:

  • Power pack with 5TDFM engine
  • Improved running gear
  • Automated movement control system with a steering handlebar control
  • Additional passive protection, built-in explosive reactive armour, optronic countermeasures system, and new fire suppression system
  • Up-to-date fire control system with over-ride facilities at the commander’s station
  • Automatic loader
  • Anti-aircraft machine gun that can be aimed and fired from within the turret under complete armour protection
  • New gun (its calibre can be 125 mm or 120 mm according to Customer’s request).
The T-55AGM tank is a version of modernization of T-54, T-55, T-59 and T-62 tanks.In order to enhance all its main combat, technical and operational characteristics, it is fitted with the following:

  • Power pack with 5TDFM engine
  • Improved running gear
  • Automated movement control system with a steering handlebar control
  • Additional passive protection, built-in explosive reactive armour, optronic countermeasures system, and new fire suppression system
  • Up-to-date fire control system with over-ride facilities at the commander’s station
  • Automatic loader
  • Anti-aircraft machine gun that can be aimed and fired from within the turret under complete armour protection
  • New gun (its calibre can be 125 mm or 120 mm according to Customer’s request).

Changes in technical characteristics of the t-55 tank as a result of modernization

Parameter description

Parameter value

Before modernization

After modernization

General data
Combat weight (t)

36

48

Power-to-weight ratio (hp/t)

6.1

17.7

Hull length (mm)

6200

6858

Vehicle movement speeds (km/h)
Calculated speed (at nominal crankshaft rotation speed)
(in 1st gear)

6.85

8.5

(in 2nd gear)

14.66

15.8

(in 3rd gear)

20.21

24.9

(in 4th gear)

28.99

34.2

(in 5th gear)

45.48

47.2

(in 6th gear)

-

69.3

(in reverse gear)

6.85

4.8

(in IR gear)

-

10.7

(in IIR gear)

-

19.9

(in IIIR gear)

-

31.4

Average speed
(on natural soil road)

22 – 27

30 – 35

(on highway)

32 – 35

40 – 45

Maximum speed on highway

50

70

Operational data
Fuel consumption per 100 km (lt)
(on natural soil road)

300 – 330

300 – 330

(on highway)

190 – 210

190 – 210

Cruising range (km)
(on natural soil road)

290 – 320

at least 320

(on highway)

485 – 500

at least 500

Ambient air temperatures admissible for tank operation (degrees Centigrade)

±40

-40 to +55

Deep fording without preparation (m)

1.4

1.8

Deep fording with preparation (installation of the tank deep fording equipment) (m)

-

5

Power pack

Engine
Model and type V-55, four-stroke one-chamber liquid-cooled diesel 5TDFM, two-stroke liquid-cooled multi-fuel diesel with boxing pistons, with supercharging
Maximum power output (hp)

580

850

Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum power output (rpm)

2000

2800

Specific fuel consumption (g/hp-h)

190+5

≤160+10

Weight (kg)

≤920

1080+30

Lubrication system
Oil used MT-16P GALOL M-4042TD
Oil tank capacity (lt)

60

110

External oil tank capacity (lt)

35

-

Oil filters MAF with two oil cleaning sections and MTs-1 centrifugal oil cleaner Centrifugal oil filter
Cooling system
Type Liquid-type, closed, forced, under pressure, with centrifugal fan to create cooling air flow through the radiators Liquid-type, closed, forced, under pressure, with ejector to create cooling air flow through the radiators
Engine start system
Main system Start by means of air by using 2 compressed air bottles with pressure of at least 70 kgf/cm2 Electrical start by means of SG-18 starter by using 4 storage batteries
Combined Joint operation of air-start and electrical-start systems
Back-up Electrical by means of starter by using 4 storage batteries Start by means of air by using 2 compressed air bottles with pressure of at least 70 kgf/cm2
Engine start facilitating devices Nozzle-type heater with manual and electrical drives Heater to warm up the coolant and engine oil, self-contained torch-type air heater, oil dosed injection system (to inject oil into cylinders before engine starting)
Engine operational data
Coolant temperature (degrees Centigrade)
recommended

70 – 90

80 – 115

maximum

105

130

Oil temperature (degrees Centigrade)
recommended

70 – 90

80 – 115

maximum

110

130

Crankshaft rotation speed (rpm)
operational

1600 – 1800

1600 – 2800

maximum (for short periods of time)

2000

3400

Oil pressure in the operational range of crankshaft rotation speed (kgf/cm2)

6 – 10

min 1.5

Power transmission
Change-gear train Increasing gear-type reducer -
Gearbox With permanent engagement of teeth of gears with synchronizers in 3rd, 4th and 5th gears Mechanical planetary with hydraulic control
Number of gears
  • forward

5

7

  • rear

1

1 + 3

Oil used MT16p MT8p or TS3p8

 

Technical characteristics of the communications means

Radio set ultra-short wave, receiving/transmitting
Model

R-173M

Working frequency range (kHz)

30,000-75,999 with interval of 1 kHz

Number of pre-selected frequencies

10

Radio coverage in cross-country on interference-free frequencies by using a 3-metre whip aerial (km)

20

Crew intercom system
Model

AVSK-1

Number of parties

4 (including tank-borne infantry telephone socket)

Crewmember helmet

ShSh-1

Number

4

 

 Gun

Model

KBM1

KBM2

Calibre (mm)

125

120

Gun weight (kg

2,500

2,630

Barrel length (mm)

6,000 (48 calibres)

6,000 (50 calibres)

Type

Smoothbore

Normal recoil length (mm)

260-300

Maximum recoil length (STOP) (mm)

310

Loading Automatic, semi-automatic, manual
Ammunition types APFSDS, HEAT, HE-FRAG All types of ammunition that meet the requirements of NATO standards, Ukrainian-made guided missile
Number of rounds At least 30 (18 in automatic loader)

Coaxial machine gun

Model

KT-7.62 or PKT-7.62

Calibre (mm)

7.62

Location

On the right of the main gun

Unit of fire

3,000 rds

 

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 2-STROKE 5TDFM ENGINE

Engine type Multi-fuel engine with supercharging, with boxing pistons, liquid cooled
Maximum power output (kW / hp)

625 / 850

Number of cylinders

5

Placement of cylinders

horizontal

Working volume (lt)

13.6

Specific fuel consumption (g/kW / g/hp-h)

218+14 / 160+10

Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum power output (rpm)

2800

Maximum torque (kg·m)

202

Crankshaft rotation speed at maximum torque (rpm)

2050

Weight(kg)

1080+30

Overall dimensions (mm)
  • length

1830

  • width

955

  • height

581

 

Protection

 

Additional protection package for T-55AGM tank

The additional protection package is intended to increase the level of protection of the tank against chemical energy attack as well as kinetic energy attack (APFSDS) with the minimum possible increase of tank weight.

The additional protection package consists of passive armour protection and explosive reactive armour.

The tank hull nose is fitted with a removable module. The hull sides are fitted with armoured skirting plates as well as rubberised fabric skirts.

The outer perimeter of the front and side parts of the turret is fitted with module sections while the turret roof is fitted with containers of the explosive reactive armour array.

Each section and each container contain explosive components of explosive reactive armour of new generation, designated Nozh.

The protective action of the explosive reactive armour against a chemical energy attack consists in destruction, crushing and changing the direction of the high-energy jet due to action of the explosive reactive armour fragments and products of detonation of the explosive that is stored inside the explosive reactive armour component and is initiated by the high-energy jet.

The protective action of the explosive reactive armour against a kinetic energy attack projectile consists in destruction of the projectile body and changing of the direction of its penetration due to action of the products of detonation of the explosive that is stored inside the explosive reactive armour component and is initiated by the kinetic energy of the projectile.

Installation of the explosive reactive armour increases the level of protection of the T-55AGM tank as follows:

 

against chemical energy attack – by a factor of 2.3-2.6;

against kinetic energy attack – by a factor of 3.5-4.3.

The explosive reactive armour components do not detonate when hit by small arms bullets (7.62 mm and 12.7 mm in calibre) or automatic cannon rounds (up to 30 mm in calibre). Nor do they detonate when exposed to action of incendiary substances of Napalm type or destructive effects of volumetric explosions.

 

Vehicle signature reduction means

Dazzle coating of the external surfaces of the tank makes it less liable to be detected in the visible and near-infrared ranges of spectre when the enemy is observing the terrain through optical devices, image intensification night vision devices or low-level television cameras.

The thermal insulation of the power pack compartment top deck makes the tank less liable to be detected by enemy thermal imaging systems or to be sensed by homing warheads of missiles (projectiles, mines) which find targets by using thermal contrast.

Aerosol screen laying system

In order to increase the protection of the T-55AGM tank, it is offered to fit it with an aerosol screen laying system.

The aerosol screen laying system is intended to decoy away anti-tank guided missiles that use semi-active laser-based homing warheads, as well as to create interference to artillery systems fitted with laser range-finders, by means of detecting laser irradiation, determining its direction and laying quick-to-generate aerosol screens.

 

 Main combat and technical characteristics

System power supply voltage (V)

27

Readiness time (s)

1

Continuos operation time

unlimited

System operating modes
  • automatic
  • semi-automatic
  • manual
  • target designation mode
Response time of the system in the automatic mode (s)

less than 0.5

Arc of protection
  • 360° – with turret traverse
  • ±45° – without turret traverse
Number of grenade launchers

12

Calibre (mm)

81

Elevation angle relative to horizontal plane (degrees)

12

 

Collective NBC protection system of the T-55AGM tank

The collective NBC protection system ensures protection of the crew and internal equipment against the effects of nuclear explosions, radioactive and toxic agents, as well as bacteriological agents.

The collective NBC protection system of the tank consists of the following:

  • PRKhR-M radiation and chemical agent detector;
  • FVU filtering-and-ventilating unit.

The PRKhR-M detector is intended for continuous checking, detection, warning and control of the actuating mechanisms of the protection devices:

  • in case of powerful gamma-irradiation (nuclear explosion);
  • in case of gamma-irradiation of radioactively contaminated terrain (with measuring the intensity of gamma-irradiation);
  • in case of availability of enemy’s toxic agents in the ambient air.

The filtering-and-ventilating unit is intended to clean the outside air of toxic agents, radioactive dust and biological aerosols, to supply purified air into the crew compartment, to create overpressure in the crew compartment, and to ventilate the crew compartment in order to remove fire suppressing agents after suppressing a fire.

Fire suppression system

The fire suppression system is an automatic fire/explosion suppression system and meets the modern requirements.

The fire suppression system is intended to detect and suppress fires, to prevent the fuel/oil mixture from exploding due to action of the high energy jet in the crew and power pack compartments; to give commands for switching on ventilation, to remove pirolysis products out of the crew compartment so that the crew members will not get intoxicated by toxic agents.

This ystem differs from other systems in having a quick response in detecting and eliminating fires, a high reliability, simplicity and ease of maintenance.

The system can be activated as follows:

  • automatically (when the vehicle mains is switched on);
  • manually – by using the CR.C (crew compartment) button and EC (engine compartment) button which correspond to the relevant compartments.

Response time:

  • in the crew compartment – within 0.15 s
  • in the power pack compartment – within 10 s.

The system can be activated twice before recharging.